In 1805, one of the Fusilier companies was dissolved and reformed as a Voltigeur company. The marines were distinct in several ways from other Grande Armée units in that naval rather than Army ranks were used, the uniform was based on that of those of the Hussars, and it was the only unit of the Grande Armée in which the musicians used both the drums and the trumpets.[45]. An integral part of the French logistics system was the inclusion in every regiment of several women known as cantinières (also known as viandières, but "cantinière" was by far the more common term among French troops). While the glory of battle went to the cavalry, infantry and artillery, the army also included military engineers of various types. Fusilier training placed emphasis on speed of march and endurance, along with individually aimed fire at close range and close quarters combat. These were only temporary groupings, however, and it was not until 1804 that Napoleon made them permanent units. Napoleon usually combined together all of his cuirassiers and carabiniers into a cavalry reserve, to be used at the decisive moment of the battle. He himself was hit by a bullet in the arm. The formation of a Légère battalion exactly mirrored that of a battalion of line infantry, but different troop types were substituted for the Grenadiers, Fusiliers and Voltigeurs. Quiz Les grades militaires : Les 20 grades militaires de l'Armée de Terre. This was equally applied to the French and foreign officers, and no less than 140 foreigners attained the rank of Général. La Grande Armée advanced into Prussian territory with the famed bataillon-carré ("battalion square") system, whereby corps marched in close supporting distances and became vanguards, rearguards, or flank forces as the situation demanded, and severely defeated the Prussian armies at the Battle of Jena and the Battle of Auerstadt, both fought on October 14, 1806. Since the earliest collaboration of Napoleon and Berthier, its organization was more or less fixed and it would see only slight changes during the later campaigns of the Empire. Of the 690,000 men that comprised the initial invasion force, only 93,000 survived. Le terme de « Grande Armée » est donné par Napoléon Ier Empereur à l’armée qu’il a réunie en 1805 au camp de Boulogne pour envahir le Royaume-Uni. The second rank was used by mounted organizations: cavalry, horse artillery, List of Marshals of the First French Empire, List of French general officers (Peninsular War), Types of military forces in the Napoleonic Wars, INS Scholarship 1998: Henri Clarke, Minister of War, and the Malet Conspiracy, Insects, Disease, and Military History: Destruction of the Grand Armée, Uniform of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde, Uniforms of the Chasseurs-à-Pied de la Garde, Napoleon's Guard Infantry – Moyenne Garde, FUSILIERS DE LA GARDE 1806 – 1814 ARMEE FRANCAISE PLANCHE N" 101, Tirailleurs de la Garde Imperiale: 1809–1815, "Heads Up, By God!" Although the infantry was rarely committed en masse, the Guard's cavalry was often thrown into battle as the killing blow and its artillery used to pound enemies prior to assaults. In 1805, Napoleon ordered that the smallest, most agile men of the line battalions be chosen to form a Voltigeur company. [17], The officiers d'ordonnance (orderly officers) may be considered as junior ADCs, with the rank of chef d'escadron, captain or lieutenant. The chasseurs had far more ornate uniforms than their contemporaries the fusiliers. Until 1806, they were equipped with a cylindrical shako with a large dark green plume and decorated with white cords. Nicknamed Hell's Picadors or Los Diablos Polacos (The Polish Devils) by the Spanish, these medium and light horse (Chevau-Légers Lanciers) cavalry had speed nearly equal to the Hussars, shock power almost as great as the Cuirassiers and were nearly as versatile as the Dragoons. When they had to carry orders from the Emperor to an army commander, these would be verbal rather than written. [34], Round shot were undeniably inaccurate. United States Marines Are you interested in joining the Marines? Ranks of the Grande Armée describes the military ranks and the rank insignia used in Napoleon's Grande Armée. [19] The Army General Headquarters included the office of the Major-Général's (Chief of Staff's) Cabinet with their four departments: Movements, Secretariat, Accounting and Intelligence (orders of battle). [citation needed]. [36], Each train d'artillerie battalion was originally composed of 5 companies. Thus standard bearers and musicians, in addition to their symbolic, ceremonial and morale functions, also played important communication roles. Notes pour Servir à l'Histoire des Officiers de la Marine Et de l'Armée Française Qui Ont Fait la Guerre de l'Indépendance Américaine Classic Reprint: Amazon.it: … Grape shot and canister, or case, were the anti-personnel weapons of choice of the gunner. The Emperor managed to raise new armies, but strategically he was in a virtually hopeless position. Voltigeurs were equipped with large yellow and green or yellow and red plumes for their bicornes. 7 avr. Elting, John R.:"Swords Around A Throne. Napoleon and his army spent over a month in Moscow, vainly hoping that the Czar would respond to the French peace feelers. Initially French ministers of war insisted on arming all lancers identically, real battlefield experience however proved that the Polish way of arming only the first line with lance while the second rank carried carbine instead was much more practical and thus was adopted. A second attempt to cross the river proved more successful in July and set the stage for the two-day Battle of Wagram, where the French emerged victorious, inflicting some 40,000 casualties on the Austrians. L'Armée de terre ("Esercito di terra") è una delle quattro componenti delle forze armate francesi.Come le altre tre forze (Marine nationale, Armée de l'air e Gendarmerie nationale), è posta sotto responsabilità del governo francese.Operativamente, le unità dell'esercito sono sotto l'autorità del Capo di stato maggiore delle forze armate (chef d'état-major des armées CEMA). The line Fusilier wore a bicorne hat, until this was superseded by the shako in 1807. Carabinier companies could be detached to form larger all Carabinier formations for assaults or other operations requiring assault troops. "Seek diligently to discover the truth, deterred neither by fear nor prejudice" As the U.S. Army's primary criminal investigative organization and the Department of Defense's premier investigative organization, the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command, commonly known as CID, is responsible for conducting felony-level criminal investigations in which the Army is, or may be, a party of interest. Napoleon rebuilt the branch, turning it into arguably the finest in the world. It consisted several different units and commanders. Napoleon hoped to catch and defeat the Allied armies under Wellington and Blücher in Belgium before the Russians and Austrians could arrive. Dans le cadre de ses rotations d’unités en Europe, le Pentagone va faire transiter une brigade aéromobile par le port de La Rochelle. Voltigeurs performed exactly the same mission in the Légère battalion as they did in the line battalions, only they were more nimble and better marksmen. Of these 50,000 were Austrians, Prussians and other Germans, 20,000 Poles and 35,000 Frenchmen. Originally, Voltigeurs were to be equipped with the short dragoon musket, however in practice they were equipped with the Charleville model 1777 and bayonet. À l'automne 1862, le major-général Henry W. Halleck fut promu de commandant du théâtre occidental à général-en-chef des armées de l'Union. In November Vienna was taken, however, Austria refused to capitulate, maintaining an army in the field and their Russian allies had not yet been committed to action. Many European armies recruited foreign troops, and Napoleonic France was no exception. The main operational and tactical units were the batteries (or companies) of 120 men each which were formed into brigades and assigned to the divisions and corps. ! In 1809, appalled by their mauling at the hands of the Austrian Uhlans, Napoleon ordered that they be given armour. In 1809, 1812 and 1813 the first thirteen battalions were "doubled" to create 13 additional battalions. Napoleon wanted to keep fighting, but his marshals refused, forcing the Emperor of the French to abdicate on April 6, 1814. The colour of this pom-pom changed depending on the company the man belonged to, as military uniforms reached their excessive pinnacle at around this period in time. Французская армия – командный состав", "пехотные знаки различия (таблица Якуба Самека)", Военные чины и знаки различия армии Наполеона, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ranks_of_the_Grande_Armée&oldid=907414067, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 July 2019, at 18:43. [citation needed], France's Imperial Guard (Garde Impériale) was the elite military force of its time and grew out of the Garde du Directoire and Garde Consulaire. In the Six Days Campaign of February 1814, the 30,000-man French army inflicted 20,000 casualties on Blücher's scattered corps at a cost of just 2,000 for themselves. In light cavalry and dragoon regiments, the first company of the every regiment's first escadron, was always designated as 'Elite', with presumably, the best men and horses. Simulation, Calibrated Radar Instruments and Measurements for RCS Assessment. They left the Boulogne camps late in August and through a rapid march surrounded General Karl Mack's isolated Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm. Part of the price for this versatility was their horsemanship and swordsmanship were often not up to the same standards as that of the other cavalry troops, which made them the subjects of some mockery and derision. Consequently, commanders who adhered to this system would place a great emphasis on flank security, often at the expense of a strong centre or reserve. The marine units were disbanded in 1815. Training for Légère units placed a strong emphasis on marksmanship and fast movement. By the end of the conflict tens-of-thousands had served. Excluding those of the guard, there were 9 lancer regiments. Even at long range when the shot was travelling relatively slowly it could be deadly, though it might appear to be bouncing or rolling along the ground relatively gently. One man was allotted to 750 grams of bread, 550 grams of biscuits, 250 grams of meat, 30 grams of rice, and 60 grams of grain; one liter of wine was shared between four men. The Major-Général also had his own private Military Staff which included duty Generals and Staff aides-de-camp. From general topics to more of what you would expect to find here, marinerecon0321.com has it all. Despite this, the Voltigeurs did perform a valuable task, skirmishing and providing scouts for each battalion, as well as providing an organic light infantry component for each line regiment. All contingents were commanded by French generals, except for a Polish and an Austrian corps. Their uniform was a darker blue than that of the line regiments, to aid with camouflage while skirmishing. High-Speed Video Camera Footage for Naval Environments. Timerlate Kirven and Cpl. MCDP 1-4 provides Marines a deeper understanding of the nature and form of competition, and how an innovative spirit leads to competitive advantages. The Austrians were defeated at the Battle of Eckmühl, fled over the Danube, and lost the fortress of Ratisbon. Air acted on the irregular surface of the projectile. As with the grenadiers, Carabiniers were required to wear moustaches. Work was even begun on a wagon-mounted version in 1812, but not completed in time for use in the wars. [4], "1812 год. A final stand for the defence of Moscow led to the massive Battle of Borodino on September 7, 1812. The stunning victory led to the Treaty of Pressburg on December 26, 1805, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire coming the following year. Hence they travelled at the Infantry's pace or slower. This is because the impact of a shot was not only related to its weight but also to its velocity, which, with a heavier projectile, was much greater at the end of the trajectory. The resulting Battle of Berezina and the monumental work of Eblé's engineers saved the remnants of the Armée. For a history of the French army in the period 1792–1804 during the wars of the First and Second Coalitions see French Revolutionary Armies. Armies would often retreat or even surrender if this was accomplished. This name, which is still used today, was both a play on the word (jeu de mot) and a reference to their seemingly magical abilities to grant wishes and make things appear much like the mythical Genie. One of Napoleon's most quoted lines is his dictum that "An army is a creature which marches on its stomach". The Carabinier uniform consisted of a tall bearskin cap (superseded in 1807 by a red trimmed shako with a red plume). After 1808, the Voltigeur company was situated on the left of the line when in combat. The heavy (Grosse) cavalry, equipped and armed almost like the knights of old with a heavy cuirass (breastplate) and helmets of brass and iron and armed with straight long sabers, pistols and later carbines. Certificate Grade Artillerie de MARINE. Napoleon, himself, once noted "It requires more courage to suffer than to die", so he made sure those who did survive were given the best treatment available at the best hospitals in France while they recuperated. Kalampokas.. Découvrez vos propres épingles sur Pinterest et enregistrez-les. Grouchy's delayed advance against the Prussians allowed Blücher to rally his men after Ligny and march on to Wellington's aid at the Battle of Waterloo, which resulted in the final, decisive defeat for Napoleon and his beloved army.[14]. Voltigeur companies could be detached and formed into regiments or brigades to create a light infantry formation. Napoleon left his men in order to reach Paris and address new military and political matters. 2017 - Cette épingle a été découverte par Nick. As the name indicates, these gunners marched alongside their guns, which were, of course, pulled by horses when limbered (undeployed). Use these tips and resources to learn more about history, policies, discharges, regulations, weapons, reenlistments, regulations, forms, job descriptions (MOS listings) and other Marines facts. Notes pour servir à l'histoire des officiers de la marine et de l'armée française qui ont fait la Guerre de l'Indépendance américaine by Faucher de Saint-Maurice, Narcisse Henri Edouard, 1844-1897. Some of the more famous, widely used, effective and interesting formations and tactics included: Unlike the armies of the Ancien Régime and other monarchies, advancement in the Grande Armée was based on proven ability rather than social class or wealth. Hussars, due to their bravery and riding skills, were often favoured for this task. Unit commanders handled such functions for their units, with informal help from subordinates who were usually not trained for or assigned to a specific task. While the Infantry of the Line made up the majority of the Grande Armée's infantry, the Infanterie Légère (Light Infantry) also played an important role. World-record bund test confirms Terre Armée’s capacity to innovate, leadership in soil-structure interaction. Lasalle was killed at the battle of Wagram at age 34. Their coat was similar to that of the line troops, but their lapels and cuffs were also dark blue, and it featured dark green and red epaulettes. This does not preclude them from being used on the field but quite what their purpose would have been there is not clear. It should be noted though that unarmored heavy cavalry was the norm in Europe during most of the Napoleonic War, with the French being the first to reintroduce the back-and-breastplate. After these efforts failed, the French set out on October 19, now only a shadow of their former selves. Chasseurs (Hunters) were the fusiliers of the Légère battalions. He also reintroduced the practice of wearing body armor, which had practically disappeared in Europe during the 18th century. Un E1 appartenente all'ordine dei tecnici sarebbe un "tecnico recluta" mentre un E1 assegnato all'ingegneria sarebbe un "ingegnere recluta". Regulations required that Grenadiers recruits were to be the tallest, most fearsome men in the regiments, and all were to have moustaches. Napoleon wanted it also to be an example for the entire army to follow, and a force that, since it had fought with him over several campaigns, was completely loyal. Gold (yellow) or silver (white) were used in accordance with the metal of the uniform buttons of the regiment. Their name comes from their original mission. Visualizza Profilo Visualizza Messaggi Forum Messaggio Privato Caporale Data Registrazione Jul 2012 Messaggi 162. Mar 23, 2013 - marinerecon0321.com is your first and best source for all of the information you’re looking for. [50] The same case fell to the Corps Generals (General de Corps d'armee) and Colonel Generals, also appointment ranks to divisional generals. Jul 28, 2018 - Sweden Army Officer Military Navy Insignia Badge Nice Grade !! In 1805 there were 8, later 10, regiments of foot artillery in the Armée plus 2 more in the Imperial guard, but unlike cavalry and infantry regiments, these were administrative organizations. These formations would then be used as a shock force or the Vanguard for a larger formation. The Line Infantry made up the majority of the Grande Armée. The four basic positions of the rods could be combined to form 196 different "signs". Most dispatches were conveyed as they had been for centuries, via messengers on horseback. The battalions of marine artillery were conscripted for the 1813 campaign, and included four regiments with the 1st regiment intended to have 8 battalions, 2nd regiment 10 battalions and the 3rd and 4th regiments four battalions each, totalling 9,640 men in all[46] serving with Marshal Marmont's 6th Corps. They were armed with the Charleville model 1777 musket and a bayonet, and also with a short sabre for close combat. Every morning at 0700, the duty ADC and his staff were relieved and the new ADC for the next 24 hours had to present the Emperor with a list of names of the staff under his command. Like Grenadiers, Voltigeurs were equipped with a short sabre for close combat, and like Grenadiers this was rarely used. The new Grande Armée was somewhat different than before; over half of its ranks were now filled by non-French conscripts coming from satellite states or countries allied to France. Grazie tante. Knowing that they would be promptly attended to, then honored and well looked after once back home, helped boost morale in the Grande Armée, and thus further contributed to its fighting abilities. Légère regiments tended to see more action and were often used to screen large manoeuvres. Officers of regiments with gold buttons used gold epaulettes, those with silver buttons wore silver epaulettes. In addition to the standard Charleville model 1777 and bayonet, Grenadiers were also equipped with a short sabre. Napoleon assembled the largest army he had ever commanded to deal with this menace. They could be deadly against other types of cavalry as well, most famously demonstrated by the fate of Sir William Ponsonby and his Scots Greys at Waterloo. Each company numbered around 120 men. This was to be used for close combat, but most often ended up serving as a tool to cut wood for campfires. Chef de Bataillon and Colonel of line infantry. The medium-weight mainstays of the French cavalry, although considered heavy cavalry, who were used for battle, skirmishing and scouting. Until 1812 it was undefeated in any large engagements above the regimental level. 01 Competing. Its officers and NCOs were veterans, but its ranks were filled by enthusiastic yet inexperienced students and sons of Polish and Lithuanian landholders. He always kept a strong reserve as well, mainly in the form of his Imperial Guard, which could deliver a "knockout blow" if the battle was going well or turn the tide if it was not. The Légère voltigeurs were dressed as chasseurs, but with Yellow and green epaulettes and before 1806, a colpack (or busby) replaced the shako. Davout's III Corps, the victors at Auerstadt, received the honours of first marching into Berlin. Napoleonic tactics and formations were highly fluid and flexible. Samuel J. The army grew in size as Napoleon's might spread across Europe. As was common in the Napoleonic army, this weapon was quickly blunted by being used to chop wood for fires. ISPAS. They were highly versatile being armed not only with traditional sabres (the finest with three edges made of Toledo steel), but also muskets with bayonets (which were kept in a saddleboot when riding), enabling them to fight on foot as infantry as well as mounted. "[20], Napoleon placed great trust in his Corps commanders and usually allowed them a wide freedom of action, provided they acted within the outlines of his strategic objectives and worked together to accomplish them. It reached its maximum size of 600,000 men at the start of the invasion of Russia in 1812. The highest permanent "rank" in Napoleon's army was actually Général de division. IX Cameras. When Napoleon discovered that Russian and Austrian armies were preparing to invade France in late 1805, the Grande Armée was quickly ordered across the Rhine into Southern Germany, leading to Napoleon's victories at Ulm, Austerlitz and Jena. This differed greatly from the training given to the majority of European armies, which emphasised moving in rigid formations and firing massed volleys. After the capture of Smolensk and victory in the Battle of Borodino, Napoleon and a part of the Grande Armée reached Moscow on 14 September 1812; however, the army was already drastically reduced due to the numbers killed and wounded in battles with the Russians, disease (principally typhus), desertion and long communication lines. [6], Colonel and Chef de Bataillon of artillery. Finally there was the Army General Staff with the offices of the three Assistant Major-Generals to the Major-Général. Voltigeurs (literally, Vaulters or Leapers) were élite light infantry of the line regiments. Each Fusilier wore a coloured pom-pom on his hat. It was said by their most famous commander Antoine Lasalle that a Hussar who lived to be 30 was truly an old guard and very fortunate. After two campaigns, the tallest and bravest chasseurs were chosen to join the Carabinier company. Cavalry regiments of 800–1,200 men were made up of three or four Escadrons of two companies each, plus supporting elements. This clearly illustrates the vital importance of military logistics. They made up the majority of the formation. Superb organization, fully integrated the artillery into the infantry and cavalry units it supported, yet also allowed it to operate independently if the need arose. They were armed with the Charleville model 1777, a bayonet and a short sabre. The British, in particular, who mistakenly believed the cuirassiers were Napoleon's bodyguard, and would later come to adapt their distinctive helmets and breastplates for their own Household Cavalry. The Fusilier was armed with a smoothbore, muzzle-loaded flintlock Charleville model 1777 musket and a bayonet. They then headed south and defeated Schwarzenberg at the Battle of Montereau. Entre 1917 et 1919, 20 000 militaires américains y ont transité. 3e regt (Polish) was formed in 1812 as part of the Young Guard. Affairs were decisively settled on December 2, 1805, at the Battle of Austerlitz, where a numerically inferior Armée routed a combined Russo-Austrian army led by Czar Alexander I. They may not have had the glory, but Napoleon clearly valued his pontonniers and had 14 companies commissioned into his armies, under the command of the brilliant engineer, General Jean Baptiste Eblé. It was said that even the lowliest private carried a marshal's baton in his knapsack. These were light cavalry identical to Hussars in arms and role. Accounts of the ordeals of the wounded are horrific reading. ); and one became the depot company for training recruits and remounts. The Grenadier company would usually be situated on the right side of a formation, traditionally the place of greatest honour. The French attempted to occupy Spain in 1808, but a series of disasters prompted Napoleon to intervene personally later in the year. Tout comme pour la GAR, il n'était pas rare de trouver des individus d'exception dans les rangs de l'Armée Séparatiste : Cydon Prax, Alto Stratus, à la tête de la résistance sur Jabiim, Dua Ningo, Sullustéen qui fit trembler les Mondes du Noyau à la tête de ses Croiseur de Bat… The war would continue for a while longer. Their main contribution was helping the emperor to get his forces across water obstacles by erecting pontoon bridges. Explore an interactive map with places nearby. Grape was a cluster of large metal spheres tied together around a central spindle and base and normally sewn into a bag, whereas canister was a metal case filled with smaller iron or lead spheres. With little training, they were thrown into the Russian campaign where they were surrounded and the entire regiment wiped out at Slonim, later that year by Cossacks and hussars. Armed only with curved sabres and pistols, they had reputations for reckless bravery to the point of being almost suicidal. In 1803, Napoleon had reinstated the term Regiment, the revolutionary term demi-brigade (due to the fact there were two per brigade and it lacked the royal connotations) was now only used for provisional troops and depot units. The different types of engineer companies were formed into battalions and regiments called Génie, which was originally a slang term for engineer. For the first time since 1812, L'Armée du Nord he would be commanding for the upcoming campaign was professional and competent. "[33] As may therefore be expected, French cannons were the backbone of the Grande Armée's forces, possessing the greatest firepower of the three arms and hence the ability to inflict the most casualties in the least amount of time. The new companies were to be larger, comprising 140 men, and four of these were to be made up of Fusiliers, one of Grenadiers, and one of Voltigeurs. They were largely used in identical manner to the Cuirassiers, however, being(initially) unarmored, they were less suited for close-quarters, melee combat compared to their armored brethren. It was this system of planned and improvised logistics which enabled the Grande Armée to sustain rapid marches of up to 15 miles per day for up to 5 weeks. The Carabiniers were the grenadiers of the Légère battalions. The elite among all French heavy cavalry line formations, the two regiments of Mounted Carabiniers have a very similar appearance with the Mounted Grenadiers of the Imperial Guard; bearskins, long blue coats, etc. [49] By and large this goal was achieved. They were considered "absolutely necessary" to the functioning of the army, and the Consular Decree of 7 Thermidor, Year VIII set their number at four per battalion and two per cavalry squadron. At the end of March, Paris fell to the Allies. In Voltigeur training, emphasis was placed on marksmanship and quick movement. In April 1809, the Austrians opened the campaign without a formal declaration of war and caught the French by surprise. Their number differed from time to time, but only 37 officers were ever commissioned ADC to the Emperor and at normal times their number was restricted to 12. Signed Laureille at Brest in 1818. Il est loin le temps où le port de La Rochelle-Pallice accueillait des soldats américains. Corps artillery reserve: Each Corps would also have its own artillery reserve, of one of more Brigades, armed mostly with the larger, heavier calibre pieces. [16], On 29 April 1809, a decree organized their service. For the first time foreign troops had played a role in a major battle, and done so with distinction. The Infantry was divided up into two major types, the Infantry of the Line (Infanterie de Ligne) and the Light Infantry (Infanterie Légère). This was normally only fired from a mortar or howitzer and was a hollow sphere filled with gunpowder charge. Combined with sailor battalions, these fought as part of the Division de Marine at the battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, and won high praise at the Battle of Leipzig. Translations in context of "corps des marines" in French-English from Reverso Context: corps des marines américains There the Armée won a bloody but indecisive and arguably Pyrrhic victory. French Cavalry At Eylau, 1807 And Napoleon's Cavalry Doctrine, By Order of the Commander-in-Chief: the Origin of the Guides-à-cheval, French website displaying flags of the Grande Armée, Soldiers of Fortitude: The Grande Armee of 1812 in Russia, French Heavy and Light Cavalry (Lourde et Légère Cavalerie), Illustrations (uniforms) by Hippolyte Bellangé from the book P.-M. Laurent de L`Ardèche «Histoire de Napoléon», 1843, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom, 2e Regt (French-Dutch Lancers) Formed in 1810 from a French and Dutch cadre. Divisional artillery: Every division had a brigade of 3 or 4 batteries of 8 guns (6 cannons and 2 howitzers) each. In practice, however, the term "Grande Armée" is used in English to refer to all of the multinational forces gathered by Napoleon I in his campaigns of the early 19th century (see Napoleonic Wars).[3].