According to Michel Koutouzis, who does research on security issues for the EU institutions, the UN and the French government, "In Libyan society, there is a taboo against killing people from your own tribal group. [130][146][147] The National Conference for the Libyan Opposition asked that all groups opposed to the Gaddafi government protest on 17 February in memory of demonstrations in Benghazi five years earlier. [308], In July 2011, Saif al-Islam accused NATO of bombing Libyan civilians, including his family members and their children, under the false pretence that their homes were military bases. In 2006, an initiative was adopted for providing people with low incomes investment portfolios amounting to $30,000 to be deposited with banks and companies. Gaddafi said that he had not yet ordered the use of force, and threatened that "everything will burn" when he did. A further UN resolution authorised member states to establish and enforce a no-fly zone over Libya, and to use "all necessary measures" to prevent attacks on civilians,[65] which turned into a bombing campaign by the forces of NATO against military installations and civilian infrastructure of Libya. [142][145], A "Day of Rage" in Libya and by Libyans in exile was planned for 17 February. The government is ready to dialogue with them." Gaddafi's ambassador denied the reports. He also said that he had been receiving "thousands" of phone calls from Benghazi, from residents who were being held hostage and who wanted to be rescued. [321], On 1 September, when Gaddafi lost his capital Tripoli but continued fighting, the Russian government under president Dmitry Medvedev and prime minister Vladimir Putin recognized the Libyan NTC as the only legal regime in Libya. [318] The NTC captured the whole of Sirte on 20 October 2011, and reported that Gaddafi himself had been killed in the city. Among those escaping the violence were native Libyans as well as foreign nationals including Egyptians, Tunisians and Turks. [155][156] On his website, Ibn Thabit said that he "has been attacking Gaddafi with his music since 2008" when he posted his first song on the internet, titled "Moammar – the coward". They violently protested against the government. Guerre en Libye : la chronologie des ... ainsi que trois petits-enfants du dirigeant libyen. He also promised that international monitors would be included to ensure fair elections. He stated that the commission was intended to be "for members of Libyan and foreign organizations of human rights" and that it will "investigate the circumstances and events that have caused many victims. They execute the people who are against them. Some have refused to disarm, and cooperation with the NTC has been strained, leading to demonstrations against militias and government action to disband such groups or integrate them into the Libyan military. There were also several solidarity protests in other countries that were mostly composed of Libyan expatriates. Dozens of them were arrested. 200,000 volunteers by war's end(NTC estimate)[49]. [33] The war led to the death of Gaddafi in October, and of thousands of other people. [162] The council began to refer to itself as the Libyan Republic and by March had a website. [367][368][369], An Amnesty International statement, released on 30 August 2011, stated that on visits to detention centres in Zawiya and Tripoli, Amnesty International was informed that between one third and half of those detained were from Sub-Saharan Africa. If you do that, it means (that the) one-third of the population of Libya, which is black, is also mercenaries. Il a été tué d’une balle dans la tête et son [66][67] Throughout the conflict, rebels rejected government offers of a ceasefire and efforts by the African Union to end the fighting because the plans set forth did not include the removal of Gaddafi. 9 Nov. 03/19/2019 12:04 AM EDT. [219] Video footage purporting to show this started to leak out of the country. [316] Concerns were raised over the danger of Gaddafi mounting an insurgency against the new authorities. With Eric Elmosnino, Mathilde Seigner, Fred Testot, Alain Chabat. [70] On 16 September 2011, the National Transitional Council was recognised by the United Nations as the legal representative of Libya, replacing the Gaddafi government. [281][284][285] By the end of February, Gaddafi's government had lost control of a significant part of Libya, including the major cities of Misrata and Benghazi, and the important harbours at Ra's Lanuf and Brega. Libya's GDP per capita (PPP), human development index, and literacy rate were better than in Egypt and Tunisia, whose Arab Spring revolutions preceded the outbreak of protests in Libya. Capture de Kadhafi du 15 février jusqu'au 23 octobre 15 février 2011: Octobre 2011 Rebelles Libyens LA MORT DE KADHAFI SURVIENT LE 20 OCTOBRE alors qu’il tentait de prendre la fuite de Syrte par voiture, il est bombardé par l’OTAN. [18][223][224][225] Locals in Mali said they were promised €7,500 ($10,000) upfront payment and compensation up to €750 ($1,000) per day. Government forces responded by arresting and attacking peaceful demonstrators in Benghazi and other eastern cities. [322] On 5 September, Libyan NTC spokesman, Abdulrahman Busin, said the NTC has hard evidence that Gadhafi bought arms from China. There have been various disagreements and strife between local militia and tribes, including fighting on 23 January 2012 in the former Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid, leading to an alternative town council being established and later recognized by the National Transitional Council (NTC). [251], Gaddafi's aides also organized tours for foreign journalists in Tripoli. [292] Seventeen days later, a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, which was taken in response to events then occurring during the conflict. The protests are thought to have been inspired by the successful uprising in Tunisia and Egypt. [354][355], By the end of February 2011, supplies of medicine, fuel and food were dangerously low in Libya's urban centres. [205], In late April, United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice alleged that soldiers loyal to Gaddafi were given Viagra and encouraged to commit rapes in rebel-held or disputed areas. Obama approves airstrikes against Libya, March 19, 2011. The Rebels gained power when NATO and other countries began bombarding Gaddafi's forces with attack aircraft. [365] Despite this, offers continue for the creation of an aid corridor and aid agencies have accepted military logistical support in the past, for instance in the 2010 Pakistan floods response. Journalists who point out such blatant massaging of facts are harangued in the hotel corridors. [164] On 29 March, the political and international affairs committee of the Council presented its eight-point plan for Libya in The Guardian newspaper, stating they would hold free and fair elections and draft a national constitution. [353], The ongoing conflict (or conflicts) ended for the purposes of legal qualification with the conclusion of hostilities in Libya in the end of October 2011. Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah, Muammar Gaddafi † [286][287] But in early March, Gaddafi's forces pushed the rebels back and eventually reached Benghazi[288][289] and Misrata. It was also reported attempts at contact had been initiated by French and Saudi officials. Muammar Gaddafi was the head of the Free Officers, a group of Arab nationalists that deposed King Idris I in 1969 in a "bloodless coup. [64] In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before reaching Benghazi. [99] Some Libyans said that they had found abandoned torture chambers and devices that had been used in the past. It estimated that during the first few days of the conflict, 100 to 110 people were killed in Benghazi and 59 to 64 were killed in Bayda. [250] The report suggested that Tawergha, which was dominated by black Libyans, may have been the subject of ethnic cleansing provoked by a combination of racism and bitterness on the part of Misratan fighters over the town's support for Gaddafi during the siege of Misrata. Protesters also clashed with police in Bayda and attacked government offices. [243] However, every day new footage made with cell phone cameras found its way to YouTube and the international media. [86] A broadly secular society was imposed. Despite previous reports suggesting that Muammar Gaddafi may be inside, no members of the Gaddafi family were found. [248] Libyan citizen journalist Mohammed Nabbous was shot in the head by Gaddafi's soldiers soon after exposing the Gaddafi government's false reports related to the cease-fire declaration. Although Libya is largely desert and poor in natural resources, oil has been an important commodity in … [154] Music provided an important platform for communication among demonstrators. Piers Morgan Explores the Man at the Center of Libya's Uprising", "With NATO's Operation Odyssey Dawn Launch, Strategic Dimensions Come into Focus", "Libyan Royal Family Seeking Swedish Asylum", "Benghazi, Cradle of Revolt, Condemns Gaddafi", "Protesters Defy Gaddafi as International Pressure Mounts (1st Lead)", "Middle Eastern Media See End of Gaddafi", "Libya: Gaddafi Forces Attacking Rebel-Held Benghazi", "Libya: urgent to apply the rules of war", "Gaddafi relatives offered Malta Armed Forces bribes – Clinton ally", "Canada turns commitment into clout in Libya", "Libya: U.S. Tomahawk Cruise Missiles Hit Targets in Libya", "Libya: US, UK and France attack Gaddafi forces", "French Fighter Jets Deployed over Libya", "France Uses Unexplosive Bombs in Libya: Spokesman", "Polled N.J. Crowds were armed with petrol bombs and threw stones. [176], In the days leading up to the conflict, Gaddafi called for a rally against the government that was to be held on 17 February. ", "The Arab Spring and the impact of social media", "Online Collective Action: Dynamics of the Crowd in Social Media". CONFIRMÉ: des missiles Anti-Air et sol-sol son tiré de Bab Al3azeziy… (cont) Nations-Unis Le Monde intervient en Libye, avec une vitesse inhabituelle: … [386], The disputed allegations about the Libyan government's use of the Libyan Air Force to strike civilians led to the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 to create a Libyan no-fly zone on 17 March, though several countries involved in the resolution's enforcement have also carried out regular strike missions to degrade the offensive capacity of the Libyan Army and destroy the government's command and control capabilities, effectively acting in de facto support of anti-Gaddafi forces on the ground. Watch Queue Queue [159], The National Transitional Council (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الانتقالي‎) was established on 27 February to consolidate efforts for change in the rule of Libya. [115] The government sometimes executed dissidents through public hangings and mutilations and re-broadcast them on public television channels. The effort was initially largely led by the United States. No hospital. There were many small protests of about 300-500 people throughout January. Military Intervention in Libya", "UNHCR concerned as sub-Saharan Africans targeted in Libya", "Libyan Rebels Wary Of Sub-Saharan Africans", "Libya: Fears for detainees held by anti-Gaddafi forces", "Blacks in Libya Face Danger From Rebels", "Elders hold talks over Gaddafi stronghold", "African women say rebels raped them in Libyan camp", "Gaddafi's ghost town after the loyalists retreat", "Strife in Libya Could Presage Long Civil War", "At a Tense Border Crossing, a Systematic Effort To Keep Black Africans Out", "Libyan Refugee Crisis Called a 'Logistical Nightmare'", "Libya: More Aid To Reach Misrata and Other Areas", "Libya's Arabian Gulf Oil Co Hopes To Fund Rebels Via Crude Sales-FT", "Update 1-Libyan Islamic Leaders Urge Muslims To Rebel", "Libya Crisis: What Role Do Tribal Loyalties Play? [98][99] Except for housing improvements and the Great Manmade River, little infrastructure was developed in this region for many years. No money. In 1975 he published his manifesto The Green Book. Dne 17. března 2011 byla Radou bezpečnosti OSN poměrem hlasů 10:0 (při absenci pěti států – Německa, Brazílie, Indie – a dvou ze stálých členů RB, Ruska a Číny) schválena rezoluce RB OSN č. Journalists and human rights researchers made daily phone calls to hundreds of civilians in government held territory. In addition, the report stated that there were information platforms such as newspapers and TV channels for people to express their opinions through. 2011 War On Libya Belligerents.svg 863 × 443; 1.22 MB BM-21 Bengasi 0589 b1.JPG 800 × 517; 161 KB Coalition action against Libya de.png 2,026 × 2,258; 384 KB Those who surrender their weapons and would come without their arms, we would forgive them, and would have amnesty for those who put down their weapons. [276], A rival claimant to the throne, Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi, announced in an interview with Adnkronos that he was ready to return to Libya and "assume leadership" once change had been initiated. By 3 March, the situation was described as a logistical nightmare, with the World Health Organization warning of the risk of epidemics. [120], The Green Book, which Gaddafi authored in the 1970s, was for years the principal text of political education. Directed by Valérie Donzelli. When their young son is diagnosed with a brain tumor, young parents Roméo and Juliette unite in the fight for his survival. [88] Homelessness was insignificant, with literacy rates estimated at 88%, and average life expectancy rose from 51/54 in 1969 to 74/77. The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and foreign supported groups seeking to oust his government. You cannot escape [275] He also stated that he will support any form of government that Libya will choose after Gaddafi including a constitutional monarchy. [199], During the siege of Misrata in May 2011, Amnesty International reported "horrifying" tactics such as "indiscriminate attacks that have led to massive civilian casualties, including use of heavy artillery, rockets and cluster bombs in civilian areas and sniper fire against residents. [127][128], In late January, Jamal al-Hajji, a writer, political commentator and accountant, "call[ed] on the Internet for demonstrations to be held in support of greater freedoms in Libya" inspired by the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. [249], After the uprising began, Libyan students studying in the United States allegedly received phone calls from the Libyan embassy, instructing them to join pro-Gaddafi rallies, and threatening the loss of their government-funded scholarships if they refused. He also stated that NATO offered to drop the ICC charges against him and his father if they accept a secret deal, an offer they rejected. Anyone who throws his arms away and stays at home would be protected. [378] By 3 March, an estimated 200,000 refugees had fled Libya to either Tunisia or Egypt. [310] Early on 23 August, Saif al-Islam appeared at the Gaddafi-controlled Rixos Hotel in central Tripoli and boasted his father was still in control. The West Point analysis of these documents concluded that Libya provided "far more" foreign fighters in per capita terms than any other country. In early May 2012, it passed its most sweeping measures to date, granting immunity to former rebel fighters for acts committed during the civil war and ordering that all detainees accused of fighting for Gaddafi should be tried or released by 12 July 2012. The New York Times reported rebel leaders as saying they believed the only areas still under Gaddafi's control, other than the immediate neighbourhood of Bab al-Azizia, were al-Hadhba and Abu Salim, the latter including the Rixos Hotel where a group of foreign journalists had been trapped for days. The dead and injured were piled into vehicles and taken away, possibly for cremation. [172] NATO's Supreme Allied Commander James G. Stavridis stated that intelligence reports suggested there were "flickers" of al-Qaeda activity among rebels, but that there was insufficient information to confirm a significant presence of terrorist groups. He was arrested on 1 February by plain-clothes police officers, and charged on 3 February with injuring someone with his car. A campaign in Serbia has organized people to spread pro-Gaddafi messages on the Internet. The government also banned giving blood transfusions to people who had taken part in the demonstrations. In Benghazi "the February 17 Brigade" was a powerful Islamist group composed of 12 different brigades. The General People's Congress announced that, of 468 Basic People's Congresses, 64 chose immediate implementation while 251 endorsed implementation "but asked for (it) to be delayed until appropriate measures were put in place". 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Human Rights Council resolution: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (2010)", "Libya and the U.S.: Qadhafi Unrepentant", "Al-Qadhafi Suggests Libyan Elections May Be In The Offing", "What now for Colonel Gadaffi's Green Book?